Category: Pain Management

Inflammatory leg pain – Crystalline disease

Etiology and pathogenesis Crystal-induced arthropathies is a group of diseases caused by the inflammatory properties of various crystals. The common feature of gout (monosodium urate crystals), pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate crystals), and hydroxyapatite crystal disease...

Mechanical leg pain – Joint disease

Hammer toe Hammer toe is a flexion deformity which occurs at the proximal interphalangeal joint, resulting in plantarflexion of the middle and distal phalanges. When the distal interphalangeal joint is involved rather than the...

Mechanical leg pain – Foot and ankle

Soft tissue Ligament injuries Ankle stability is conferred by virtue of the bony, muscular and ligamentous anatomy. The lateral and medial malleolus are secured to the talus by the anterior and posterior talofibular (ATFL...

Mechanical leg pain – Hip and thigh

Soft tissue Musculotendinous strains Among the thigh muscle groups, the hamstrings are the most frequently strained, followed by the adductor and quadriceps groups. Approximately half of the injuries seen in the hamstrings (semitendinosus, semimembranosus,...

Mechanical leg pain – Knee

Soft tissue Patellar tendon rupture Rupture of the patellar tendon occurs fairly commonly in athletes. Frequently the athlete will have had a history of pre-existing inflammatory symptoms such as ‘jumper’s knee’ and there may...

Mechanical leg pain – Pathophysiology

Most episodes of leg pain related to mechanical causes can be divided into chronic overuse injuries and acute traumatic or contact injuries. Overuse injuries usually occur insidiously over time as a result of a...